The service as general principle of economic activity. Productivity or servicity?

  • Alexandru JIVAN
  • Miruna NACHESCU
Keywords: service, service economy, knowledge economy, productivity, servicity


The paper aims to point out main relevant moments in the researches concerning the service issue, containing the reserve for core developments in economics. Roots are from the literature in the last decade of the previous century, but also certain even elder and diverse more recent developments are evoked as well, by the criterion of their importance mainly for better seeing the issue of productivity, and of the interesting particular developments they got later. Apart from the service economy literature, background comes from the genuine liberalism too. The obvious realities of growing immaterial dimension of human concerns give the actual conditions that make such researches necessary, against the orthodox production and material approach. The reference value of our research is supplemented with the developments we made, including defining conceptual distinctions and suitable particularizations. Such contributions are meant to allow the relevant concerned ideas to be better seen, and to improve economics' approaches. The importance of involving such elements in economic research is conclusively underlined. Purely theoretical, the paper does not contain empirical analyses. It is useful for scholars that wish to widen the horizon of their approaches in attempts to render them topical and to improve the common/ dominant economics.


Bastiat, F. (1982), Harmonies économique, Libraires Guillaumin et Cie, Paris.
Baumol W.J. (1967) “Macroeconomics of Unbalanced Growth: the Anatomy of Urban Crisis”, American Economic Review, 3 (June), pp. 415-426.
Becker, G. (1997), Human Capital. A Theoretical and Empirical Analisis with Special Reference to Education (in Romanian), All Publishing House, Bucharest.
Bell, D. (1976), Vers la société post-industrielle, Éditions Robert Laffont, Paris.
Bressand, P. and Nicolaidis, K. (1988) “Les services au cœur de l'économie relationnelle”, in Revue d’Economie Industrielle, no 43.
De Bandt, J. (sous la direction de), (1991) Les services. Productivité et prix, Éditions Économica, Paris.
Delaunay, J. C. and Gadrey, Jean (1992), Services in Economic Thought. Three Centuries of Debate, International Studies in the Service Economy, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston/ Dordrecht/ London.
Djellal, F. and Gallouj, F. (2008) Measuring and Improving Productivity in Services, Cheltenham, Northampton: Edward Elgar.
Fourastié, J. (1967) Le grand espoir du XX-e siècle, Paris: Gallimard.
Fuchs, V.R. (1968) The Service Economy, New York: National Bureau of Economic Research, General series nr. 87.
Gadrey, J. (1996a), Services: la productivité en question, Desclée de Brouwer, Paris.
Gadrey, J. (1996b), L'économie des services, La Découverte (2nd edition), Paris.
Galvagno, M. and Dalli D., (2014), “Theory of value co-creation: a systematic literature review”, Managing Service Quality, 24 (6), 643 – 683
Georgescu-Roegen, N. (1979) The Low if Enthropy and the Economic Process (in Romanian), Politică Publishing House, Bucharest.
Grönroos, C. (2008) “Service logic revisited: who creates value? And who co-creates?”, European Business Review, Vol. 20 No. 4, pp. 298-314.
Hill, P. (1977) “On Goods and Services”, Review of Income and Wealth, 4(23), pp 315-338.
Jivan, A. (1993) “Services and Servicity”, Services World Forum Bulletin, no. 3, 4, pp. 16-24 (paper firstly presented in The 9th Annual Seminar International on the Service Economy, PROGRES, Geneva, September 6 and 7, 1993)
Jivan, A. (1995) The Intellectual Tertiairy Sector (in Romanian), Mirton Publishing House, Timişoara
Jivan, A. (1996) The Modern Services – a Challenge for the Economic Theory and Practice (in Romanian), Editions Mirton, Timişoara.
Jivan, A. (2000), Servicity – More than Productivity in the Service Economy (in Romanian), Sedona Publishing House, Timişoara.
Jivan, A. (2004) “Particular and Ethical Questions in Liberalizing Eastern European Economies”, in Proceedings of the 14th IGWT Symposium Focusing New Century: Commodity – Trade – Environment, Volume II, Part II Trade, IGWT, CSCS, 25th-29th August 2004, Beijing, China, China Agriculture Press, ISBN 7-109-0921-1, p. 675-688
Jivan, A. (2008), “Possible Connection M. Manoilescu – N. Georgescu-Roegen Well-Grounded on Knowledge Society”, The International Conference Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen – 30 Years (1979-2008) of Roegenian Method, October 17-18 2008
Jivan, A. (2011) “Artificial Economy”, Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics and Information Technology (JKMEIT), issue 5, august 2011,, ISSN 2247-7756, pp. 1-20
Jivan A. (2013), “A systemic Approach on Productivity. Generalized Coproduction” in Proceedings of The Eight International Conference on Economic Cybernetic Analysis Development and Resources – DERS2013, November 1-2, (CD) ISBN: 2247-1820; ISSN-L: 2247-1820, Bucharest, Romania, CIBEREC, The Bucharest University of Economic Studies, p. 154-170.
Jivan, A. (2014a), “Alternative Ways of Assessing Productivity Suitable for Social Efficiency”, in Patricia-Luciana Runcan, Georgeta Rață, Social Economics and Entrepreneurship (Edited by), Cambridge Schollars Publishing, 2014, 12 Back Chapman Street, Newcatle upon Tyne, NE6 2XX, UK, ISBN (10) 1-4438-5675-4, ISBN (13) 978-1-4438-5675-1, p. 51-60.
Jivan, A. (2014b), “Productivité et servicité”, Economies et Sociétés, No.4/2014, Cahiers de l’ISMEA, No 4/2014 (Série « Economie et Gestion des Services » EGS No 15, Avril 2014), pp 579-599.
Jivan A. (2016a), “Co-production in the servicity approach, on the grounds of Knowledge Economy”, in Annals of the University “Eftimie Murgu” Resita, p 116-123 (retrieved from
Jivan (coord. 2016b) Elements of Intellectual Services' Productivity, Mirton Publishing House, Timişoara.
Jivan, A. (2018) “Possibilities of Developing the Productivity Approach. Proposals in Certain Main Directions”, The Annals of the University of Oradea, Economic Sciences, Tom XXVII, 1st issue, July 2018, pp. 94-103, ISSN 122569 (printed format) ISSN 1582-5450 (electronic format).
Jivan, A. and Barabas, Maria (2017) “The Coordinates of Co-Production in the Educational Services System”, Timisoara Journal of Economics and Business, june 2017. ISSN: 2286-0991 |retrieved from Volume 10 | Issue 1 | Pages: 35–50, DOI: 10.1515/tjeb-2017-0003.
Jivan, A., Curea Pitorac, Ruxandra and Tînjală, Diana (2018) “Serviceable Results of Five Automotive Companies. Comparisons Concerning Certain Originally Calculated Indicators”, Proceedings of the 32nd IBIMA Conference: 15-16 November 2018, Seville, Spain, ISBN:978-0-9998551-1-9
Jivan, A. and Năchescu, M. (2017) “Generalizing Productivity and Service Stake. A Heterodox Widened Approach” Journal of Heterodox Economics, no.2/2017.
Jivan, A. and Năchescu, M., (2018) “Environmental Approaches in Productivity Analysis. Improving Proposals”, Iași, 2018, Volume X, Issue 4,
Jivan A. and Năchescu M. (2019) “Service: From General Validity in Economics, to Dominant Logic in Marketing”, 15th International Conference on European Integration – New Challenges – EINCO 2019, working paper accepted for publication in The Annals of the University of Oradea, Economic Sciences.
Jivan, A., Șipoș, C. and Weisz Janeta (2017) “The Outcomes of the Romanian Educational System and Economic Indicators”, Studia Oeconomica – edition no. 2 of 2017, retrieved from
Kaufman, Ron (2013) The Culture of Superior Services. The Confermed Method by which You Delight Your Clients, Colleagues and All Those You Meet (in Romanian), Publica Publishing House, Bucharest, 2013)
Levitt, Theodore (1974) Marketing for business growth, 1974, New York : McGraw-Hill, in Grönroos, 2008, p. 301)
Manoilescu, M. (1986) The National Productive Forces and Foreign Trade. The Theory of Protecţionism and of The International Change (in Romanian), The Scientific an Enciclopaedic Publishimng House, Bucharest, 1986
Mincer, J. (1958), “Investment in Human Capital and Personal Income Distribution”, Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 66, Issue 4, pp. 281-302, retrieved from, accessed on 09.11.2014
Olson, M. (1972), ‘Evaluating Performance in the service sector’, in Moss, M. (ed.) The Measurement of Economic and social Performance, New York NBER: Columbia University Press.
Ostrom, Amy L. et al. (2010) “Moving Forward and Making a Difference: Research Priorities for the Science of Service”, January 2010, Journal of Service Research 13(1):4-36, DOI: 0.1177/1094670509357611, in Galvagno, M. and Dalli D., (2014), “Theory of value co-creation: a systematic literature review”, Managing Service Quality, 24 (6), 643 – 683
Quesnay, François (1766), Analyse de la formule arithmétique du tableau économique de la distribution des dépenses annuelles d'une nation agricole (juin) de François Quesnay, retrieved from
Rittelli, D., Barbiroli, G. and Fabbri, P.(1997) “Predation among technologies on the market: a modellistic analysis”, Journal of Mathematical Economics, 27:347–374.
Smith, Adam (1776), An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, retrieved from
Soto, de, Jesús Huerta, Hayek’s Best Test of a Good Economist, (Originally published in Procesos de Mercado: Revista Europea de Economía Política, vol. I, no. 2, autumn 2004, pp. 121 124), retrieved from
Vargo, S., and Lusch, R. (2004). “Evolving to a new dominant logic for marketing” Journal of Marketing, 68, 1–17
Vargo, S.L. and Lusch, R.F. (2008), “Service dominant logic: continuing the evolution”, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 36 No. 1, pp. 1-10.
How to Cite
JIVAN, A., & NACHESCU, M. (2019). The service as general principle of economic activity. Productivity or servicity?. Timisoara Journal of Economics and Business, 12(1), 43-70. Retrieved from